Hadassah is committed to empowering women and men with the knowledge to make critical health decisions for themselves and their families. We believe that health education is also fundamental to helping our communities have open conversations, improve sensitivities to others, and prepare advocates and elected officials to fight for policy change. We are providing you with the facts from this list of frequently asked questions. Then learn more about how Hadassah’s reConceiving Infertility initiative is raising awareness and helping our communities expand the definitions of what it means when we talk about family.

What is infertility?

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Clinical infertility is the inability to achieve or sustain pregnancy while trying for one year to conceive through intercourse, or after six months of trying if the woman is 35 or older. 

Is infertility a Jewish problem?

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One in eight couples in the United States report having trouble getting pregnant or sustaining a pregnancy₁. Rates are even higher in the Jewish community, according to the Jewish Fertility Foundation, with infertility affecting as many as one in six Jewish couples.₂

In the United States, Jews outside the Orthodox community are more likely than the general population to start trying to have children at a later age, which is a risk factor for infertility. Religious (Halachic) infertility can be an issue for Jews who strictly observe religious laws of ritual purity. For those with a short ovulation cycle, that could mean being required to abstain from sex around peak ovulation, leading to difficulty getting pregnant.

Some conditions that cause infertility — like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), cystic fibrosis and Fanconi anemia C — are more prevalent in the Jewish community₃. A higher incidence of genetic mutations, such as Tay-Sachs₄ and BRCA, also increase the Jewish community’s need for in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic testing treatment. With 1 in 40 Ashkenazi Jewish women carrying the BRCA mutation₅ that increases risk for breast and ovarian cancer — especially at a young age — there is also an increased need for fertility preservation services.


  1. National Survey of Family Growth 2015-2017
  2. Infertility in the Jewish Community, Jewish Fertility Foundation
  3. Evaluation and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Carrier Frequencies for Common Genetic Diseases by Ethnicity
  4. Carrier Frequencies for Common Genetic Diseases by Ethnicity
  5. Jewish Women and BRCA Gene Mutations, Centers for Disease Control

What are the causes of infertility?

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There are many causes of infertility, which can occur independently or in combination. For 5 to 10 percent of couples, infertility is unexplained.₁

Age and Gamete Health: Infertility increases with age, due to the decreased number and quality of reproductive cells (gametes). As women age, their egg count (ovarian reserve) goes down and more eggs are likely to contain genetic abnormalities. For men, sperm count, shape or movement (motility) can all be affected. Problems with reproductive cells are more common as people get older, though patients of any age can be affected due to hormonal or genetic conditions, lifestyle and other factors.

Ovulation Disorders and Poor Sperm Delivery: Ovulation disorders can impact about 1 in 4 infertile couples. As many as 5 million women in the US have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) a metabolic condition that affects hormone levels and the release of eggs, in addition to increasing risk for diabetes, obesity and heart disease, erectile dysfunction and other sexual issues that inhibit sperm delivery can also decrease the likelihood of conception.

Obstructions and Structural Problems: Physiological issues affecting fertility may be caused by other underlying conditions — or not. Blockages can prevent the delivery of eggs and sperm, and conditions like endometriosis and uterine fibroids create growths and scar tissue that may impede implantation on the uterine wall. For people missing reproductive organs — either since birth or due to injury or removal — natural conception may never be an option.

Genetics: Chromosomal abnormalities can affect the quality of reproductive cells, as well as the other reproductive functions described above. Reproductive cells with abnormalities may result in lower embryo stability and increase the likelihood of pregnancy loss. Studies have found that chromosomal abnormalities account for over 50 percent of early pregnancy loss, and recurrent pregnancy loss (three consecutive miscarriages) affects 1 to 2 percent of the population.

Lifestyle and the Environment: Extreme weight gain or loss, obesity and excessive physical or emotional stress may impact fertility — especially for women. Heavy alcohol use, smoking, and the use of anabolic steroids or illicit drugs, as well as certain prescription medications, can also be factors. Exposure to radiation — through medical treatment or otherwise — can also increase risk for infertility.

For additional information, refer the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Women’s Health.


  1. Unexplained Infertility, American Society for Reproductive Medicine
  2. Reproductive Facts, American Society for Reproductive Medicine
  3. What is PCOS?, Centers for Disease Control
  4. Risk of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Early Spontaneous Abortion after Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Meta-Analysis, PLoS One
  5. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Therapy, Obstetrics & Gynecology

Who may need fertility treatments?

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  • Couples having difficulty getting pregnant or diagnosed with infertility — either primary or secondary infertility (infertility following the birth of another child(ren) without infertility treatment)
  • Same-sex couples and transgender couples
  • Single parents
  • Trauma survivors, including many veterans, with injuries to their reproductive organs
  • People with genetic mutations — either living with a condition or carriers — who require genetic testing on embryos to ensure future children do not inherit the mutation
  • Patients about to undergo treatments that could render them infertile (e.g. chemotherapy and radiation for cancer), necessitating fertility preservation services to freeze healthy eggs, sperm or embryos and then future fertility treatments.

What does infertility treatment entail?

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When seeking treatment for infertility, people may start with their ob-gyn or a reproductive endocrinologist, an ob-gyn with special training in infertility. Men may also see a urologist. Clinicians will provide patients with a series of tests to determine the cause(s) of infertility and may recommend lifestyle changes to improve fertility. For additional information on evaluating infertility, refer to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

In cases where spontaneous pregnancy doesn't happen, couples can still achieve a pregnancy through use of medication, surgery, artificial insemination (most frequently intrauterine insemination or IUI) and assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) on embryos. According to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, 85 to 90 percent of infertility cases are treated with medication or surgery and less than 3 percent of patients receive IVF services.

Infertility treatment often involves significant financial, physical, psychological and time commitments.


  1. Reproductive Facts, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

What about other pathways toward parenthood?

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There are numerous pathways to parenthood — for people facing infertility and not — and parenthood is defined by so much more than biology. Through third-party reproduction, families can be created through egg, sperm, and embryo donation, and/or the help of a surrogate or gestational carrier. For others, they may become parents though fostering, adoption or step-parenting. And for some their pathway toward parenthood ultimately ends with a decision to live childfree.

Read more about how reConceiving Infertility is raising awareness and helping our communities expand the definitions of what it means when we talk about family.

News and Stories

Read about Hadassah’s advocacy at the state and federal levels, research from Hadassah’s hospitals and featured testimonials from those affected by infertility. You will surely be moved by the stories that destigmatize infertility, tackle what to say — and what not to say — to support those struggling, and empower others to speak out and effect change.